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Ms-10 june 2010

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MS-11   june, 2010

MS-11 : ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE

1. Describe any two types of organisation structures and relate their significance to restructuring. Explain with suitable examples.

2. Discuss the current trends in the study of work organisation and their effect on the work culture.

3. Describe Questionnaire as a tool for analysing an organisation and its merits and demerits.

4. Explain Lewin's model in process of change and interventions in Managing Resistance to change.

5. Write short notes on any three of the following :

a) Task force.

b) Process consultation.

c) Quality of work life.

d) Institution Building.

(e) Competencies required for a change agent.

6. Read the following case carefully and answer the questions given at the end.

In mid-1984, Mr. Mahmood, the general manager of Westward Exports Ltd., Karachi, Pakistan was striving to implement a management information system. He was facing resistance from Mr. Saleem, his most senior supervisor. Mr. Mahmood wondered what he could do to overcome this resistance.

Westward Exports was an exporter of ladies' cotton garments. It was a private company established in 1971, a family-run business, all four directors being brothers.

Over the past 14 years, the exports of the company had grown from Rs. 0.71 million in 1972-73 to Rs. 59.76 million in 1984. Almost 90 per cent of the exports went to the USA. It owned no manufacturing facility of any kind. It purchased cotton cloth from six different textile mills and had the cloth dyed and printed. This fabric was then passed on to 138 stitching subcontractors. The company had been expanding the product line over the years, and by 1983 it was exporting about one million garments in over 100 basic designs. 'The 100 designs were presented in a range of fabric types, shades, designs and sizes. When seen in the context that the company got all these things done through subcontractors, the managerial control of the operations became quite challenging. The directors, who had always been actively involved in each and every aspect of the business, and made all the decisions themselves, felt the heat of the changing situation. They appreciated the problem, and decided to hire some professional assistance to bring more control to their operations.

Mr. Mahmood was hired in late 1983 to be the new general manager. He was an agricultural graduate who had about 15 years of marketing and sales experience with a multinational organization. He had also attended more than a dozen management development courses. The directors were confident that he could introduce some new control measures to help ensure the continued success of the company. Mr. Mahmood quickly determined that if Westward Exports was to remain in business, it must immediately eliminate the haphazardness in its operations. No proper costing, no scheduling, no progress sheets or order status reports, no follow-up charts, or for that matter no control procedure worth the name existed. "It was all so nebulous," he concluded. He worked late hours to comprehend fully the nature and scope of the company's business and its coordination and working relationships with the contractors.

Almost immediately, he started to design a proper system to help cure the lack of control

and information available.

Out of about 200-odd employees in the company, the key operating manager was Mr. Saleem. Saleem joined the company in 1973 as a production officer, nearly the lowest rung in the company's hierarchy. He distinguished himself because of his hard work and was promoted to be a supervisor. By 1982, Saleem under direct supervision of the directors, was looking after every activity in manufacturing. Right from raw material procurement to packing and shipping of finished garments, he was coordinating all the activities. Because of the varied nature of his duties and his dedication to work, he was able to learn all the ins and outs of the business. Saleem was also considered to be a man with a photographic memory. He virtually ran the whole business from the information stored in his head. "I have an abhorrence for paperwork," said Saleem. "My work-load is so great that I am always engrossed in my job. Even my dreams are job-related," he added, "but due recognition has always been accorded to me by my directors." Saleem initially cooperated with Mahmood.

However, when Mahmood started to implement some of the new systems and procedures, Saleem refused to go along with them. Saleem even questioned the very need for such a drastic change. "Ask me about anything — any detail of a fabric, any garment, any export order — for that matter anything that has happened in this company since I joined, and I will tell you instantly. Why are you bothering the people here with such clerical burdens ? These luxuries are alright for big companies, but not for us. We cannot spare people for such unproductive things." Mahmood understood that Saleem was close to the director and was the seniormost supervisor. Therefore, his opposition could not be taken lightly. Mahmood also felt that the other might say that he had neither the general management experience, nor any particular experience in the garment industry.

Nevertheless, Mahmood was confident that the company did need the change, and as soon as possible. He was troubled, however, with the resistance of Mr. Saleem. Unless he could somehow overcome Saleem's reluctance to accommodate his new systems, he would not be able to do the job.

Questions :

a) Discuss the main issues reflected in the case.

b) What mistake did Mr. Mahmood make ?

(c) How should Mr. Mahmood handle the current situation ?

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